Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large breathing tubes (bronchi) in the lungs. The illness can be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic). Acute bronchitis means that the symptoms often develop quickly and don’t last long. Most cases are mild.
Acute bronchitis is most often caused by a viral infection. It may also be caused by bacteria or things such as dust, allergens, strong fumes, or tobacco smoke.
In children, the most common cause of acute bronchitis is a virus. The illness may develop after a cold or other viral infection in the nose, mouth, or throat (upper respiratory tract). Such illnesses can spread easily from direct contact with a person who is sick.
Children who have a higher chance of developing acute bronchitis are those who have:
Enlarged tonsils and adenoids
Exposure to secondhand smoke
These are the most common symptoms:
Dry or mucus-filled cough
Vomiting or gagging
Runny nose, often before a cough starts
Chest congestion or pain
An overall body discomfort or not feeling well
Back and muscle pain
These symptoms often last 7 to 14 days. But the cough may continue for 3 to 4 weeks. These symptoms may look like other health problems. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Your child’s healthcare provider can often diagnose acute bronchitis with a health history and physical exam. In some cases, your child may need tests to rule out other health problems, such as pneumonia or asthma. These tests may include:
Chest X-rays. This test makes images of internal tissues, bones, and organs.
Pulse oximetry. An oximeter is a small device that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. For this test, the healthcare provider puts a small sensor (like a clip) on your child's finger or toe. When the device is on, a small red light can be seen in the sensor. The sensor is painless and the red light does not get hot.
Sputum and nasal discharge samples. These tests can find the germ causing an infection.
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.
In nearly all cases, antibiotics should not be used to treat acute bronchitis. That’s because most of the infections are caused by viruses. Even children who have been coughing for longer than 8 to 10 days often don't need antibiotics.
The goal of treatment is to help ease symptoms. Treatment may include:
Plenty of rest
Acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever and mild pain
Cough medicine for children over 4 years old
Cool-mist humidifier in your child’s room
Talk with your child’s healthcare provider before giving over-the-counter cough and cold medicine to your child. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend giving these medicines to children younger than 4 years old because they may cause harmful side effects. For children between ages 4 and 6, only use over-the-counter products when recommended by your child's healthcare provider. In most cases, also don’t give antihistamines. They can dry up the secretions. That can make the cough worse.
Don’t give aspirin or medicine that contains aspirin to a child younger than age 19 unless directed by your child’s provider. Taking aspirin can put your child at risk for Reye syndrome. This is a rare but very serious disorder. It most often affects the brain and the liver.
Most children who have acute bronchitis will get better without any problems. But the illness can lead to pneumonia.
You can help prevent acute bronchitis by stopping the spread of viruses that may lead to it. Take these steps:
Teach your child to cover their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing.
Make sure your child washes his or her hands often.
Check that your child is up-to-date on all vaccines, including the yearly flu shot.
Call your child’s healthcare provider right away if your child’s symptoms get worse, if new symptoms develop, or if he or she has:
A high fever
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large breathing tubes (bronchi) in the lungs. Acute bronchitis means that the symptoms often develop quickly and don’t last long.
In children, the most common cause of acute bronchitis is a virus.
A cough, fever, runny nose, and body aches are common symptoms.
Treatment is aimed at easing symptoms. It may include plenty of rest and fluids. Medicines for fever or cough may also help.
Antibiotics are not needed, unless the cause is a bacterial infection.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.