An aneurysm is a bulging, weak area in the wall of a blood vessel. It may occur in any blood vessel, but most often develops in an artery rather than a vein. An aneurysm can be categorized by its location, shape, and cause.
An aneurysm may be found in many areas of the body, such as:
Brain (cerebral aneurysm)
Aorta (aortic aneurysm)
Blood vessels in the legs (iliac, femoral, or popliteal aneurysm)
The most common types of an aneurysm is in the aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is s type that occurs in the chest cavity. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs in the abdomen.
An aneurysm may be caused by factors that result in the breakdown of the artery wall. The exact cause isn't fully known. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) may be part of the cause.
Other causes of aneurysms are related to where they occur. Examples may include:
Type of aneurysm
Causes of aneurysms
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
Atherosclerosis (especially in the part of the abdominal aorta below the kidneys, called an infrarenal aortic aneurysm)
Giant cell arteritis (a disease that causes inflammation of the temporal arteries and other arteries in the head and neck)
Congenital (present at birth)
High blood pressure
Common Iliac artery aneurysm
Injury after lumbar or hip surgery
Femoral and popliteal artery aneurysm
You are at higher risk for an aneurysm if you have atherosclerosis.
Risk factors you can’t control include:
Risk factors you can control include:
Aneurysms may have no symptoms. If there are symptoms, they will depend on the location of the aneurysm in the body. Pain is the most common symptom. This is true no matter where the aneurysm is.
Symptoms that may occur with different types of aneurysms may include:
Constant pain in abdomen, chest, lower back, or groin area
Sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbance, loss of consciousness
Common iliac aneurysm
Lower abdominal, back, or groin pain
Pulsating of the artery in the groin (femoral) or on the back of the knee (popliteal), pain in the leg, sores on the feet or lower legs
The symptoms of an aneurysm may look like other medical conditions or problems. See your healthcare provider for more information.
What tests you’ll need depends on the location of the aneurysm. Along with a complete medical history and physical exam, tests for an aneurysm may include:
CT scan. This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to make horizontal (axial) images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays.
MRI.An MRI uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures in the body.
Echocardiogram (echo).This procedure evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic sensor that makes a moving picture of the heart and heart valves.
Arteriogram (angiogram). This is an X-ray image of the blood vessels used to evaluate various conditions, such as aneurysm, stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessel), or blockages. A dye (contrast) will be injected through a thin flexible tube placed in an artery. This dye will make the blood vessels visible on the X-ray.
Ultrasound. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. An ultrasound is used to view internal organs as they function. And it is used to assess blood flow through various vessels.
Treatment options for an aneurysm may include:
Monitoring.Your doctor may monitor the size and rate of growth of your aneurysm with ultrasounds every 6 months to 12 months. This is part of a "watchful waiting" approach for smaller aneurysms.
Managing risk factors. Steps such as quitting smoking, controlling blood sugar if you have diabetes, losing weight if overweight, and controlling dietary fat intake may help to control the progression of the aneurysm.
Medicine.Medicine can help control factors such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
Surgical repair.Surgical repair of the aneurysm can be done with large incisions and grafts or with smaller incisions, X-ray images and a stent-graft combination.
The biggest complication of an aneurysm is that it may tear (dissect) or rupture.
Because an aneurysm may continue to increase in size, along with progressive weakening of the artery wall, treatment is required to prevent rupture of an aneurysm. The larger an aneurysm becomes, the greater the risk for rupture (bursting). Rupture can cause life-threatening bleeding and possibly death. Loss of blood flow to the area the artery provides circulation to can cause organ and tissue death, which may lead to amputation of the dead tissue.
Until your aneurysm reaches the point where it needs to be repaired, it’s very important to follow your healthcare provider’s advice closely.
Have ultrasound screenings done as often as advised
Follow advice about diet, exercise, and weight control
Take medicine as prescribed
If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, tell your healthcare provider. Get immediate medical attention if you have a sudden, severe pain in the area of the aneurysm. This could be a sign that the aneurysm has ruptured.
An aneurysm is a bulging, weak area of an artery wall and can occur anywhere in the body.
The most common symptom is pain in the area of the aneurysm.
An aneurysm is repaired once it reaches a certain size. This is to prevent rupture of the blood vessel.
Treatment of an aneurysm includes controlling risk factors. These include blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and stopping smoking. These things may require changes in lifestyle and medicine.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.