Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, ERBB2, HER2
This is a tissue test to check if a certain protein involved in cell growth (HER2/neu) is present in some types of cancer cells. Some cancers, especially invasive breast cancers, have more HER2/neu protein than normal. About 20% of breast cancers have high numbers of these proteins on their cell surfaces.
If you have a biopsy that shows you have breast cancer or you have surgery for breast cancer, this test will be done on the tissue that has been removed to check for HER2/neu. Learning your HER2/neu status helps your doctors plan the best treatment for you.
HER2/neu can also be measured by a blood test.
If you are diagnosed with breast cancer, you may have this test to find out more about your condition. If you are being treated for breast cancer with a cancer medicine, this test can help your doctor find out how well you are responding to treatment.
If your HER2/neu is being measured after biopsy or surgery, your doctor may order other tests on breast cancer cells to learn more about your cancer. If these other tests find receptors for the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, this means you may respond better to some types of cancer medicines.
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider.
HER2/neu on cancer cells is measured in two ways.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing checks for this protein on the surface of cancer cells.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests for the genes that direct the cell to make HER2/neu protein.
If your cancer is HER2/neu positive, you may respond to a specific drug that targets HER2/neu receptors.
Results for IHC:
A score of 0 or +1 means your tumor is HER2 negative.
A score of +2 means the results are unclear and FISH testing should be done.
A score of +3 means the tumor is HER2 positive.
FISH results are positive or negative.
If you are having the blood test, HER2/neu is measured in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).
The tissue sample test is done on the breast tissue that was removed in a biopsy or cancer surgery.
The test may also require a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm.
The tissue sample does not pose any risk aside from the risks of the surgery.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
Only the type of cancer you have and the type of treatment you receive can affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. Be sure your doctor knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.