Chemotherapy uses anticancer medicines to kill cancer cells. The medicines are made to attack and kill cancer cells that grow quickly. Some normal cells also grow quickly. Because of this, chemotherapy can also harm those cells. This can cause side effects.
Chemotherapy is the main treatment for nearly all people with acute lymphocytic leukemia (AML). It isn’t used for some people with a subtype of AML known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
If the first treatment with chemotherapy doesn't work, your doctor may advise another type of chemotherapy. This might be given in high doses along with a stem cell transplant. This depends on a variety of factors, such as your age and if the first treatment worked at all.
If you get chemotherapy, you will likely meet with a hematologist/oncologist before treatment starts. This doctor specializes in treating blood cancers such as leukemia. The doctor will talk with you about your treatment and what you might expect.
Chemotherapy for AML is often given in phases. This gives the medicines a better chance of working well. The treatment phases of AML include:
Remission induction or induction therapy. The goal of this phase is to quickly kill as many leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow as possible. This often puts the leukemia into remission. Remission means you don't have signs or symptoms of the cancer.
Consolidation (intensification) therapy. The goal of this phase is to kill any remaining leukemia cells and keep you in remission.
Chemotherapy can be intense. You may need to spend a lot of time in the hospital. Younger people often get stronger chemotherapy. Older adults may get slightly less strong treatment.
During this first phase of treatment, you will likely need to stay in the hospital for 3 to 5 weeks. You may be kept in isolation. This is to help protect you from other people's germs. You get chemotherapy through a vein by an IV (intravenous) line. You often get a combination of 2 medicines. This makes it more likely that the treatment will work well. Which medicines you get and how long you receive them depends on factors such as your age and overall health.
You’ll likely receive a medicine called cytarabine for 7 days. Your doctor will likely combine this with 3 days of an anthracycline medicine such as daunorubicin or idarubicin. This 7-day plus 3-day protocol puts the leukemia cells in contact with medicines at different phases of their growth. This makes it more likely that the cells will be killed. Your doctor may also add another medicine.
You may also get blood product transfusions during this time if your blood cell counts get too low. Your healthcare team will check you closely for side effects. Side effects are more likely if you get high doses of medicines.
A few weeks after treatment, you will have a bone marrow biopsy and aspiration done. This is to look for any leukemia cells that remain. If there are still leukemia cells in your bone marrow, you may have a second course of chemotherapy. This is done to try to put the leukemia into remission.
Once your leukemia is in remission, the next phase of treatment is consolidation. This is an intense course of chemotherapy. It’s done to try to kill any remaining cancer cells. The goal of this phase of treatment is to keep you in remission or to keep the cancer from coming back (prevent relapse). You may get higher doses of chemotherapy medicines for several days. This will be repeated once a month for a few months. Another option may be very high-dose chemotherapy along with a stem cell transplant. Younger people often have stronger chemotherapy. Older adults may have less-strong treatment.
Chemotherapy medicines are designed to attack and kill cells that divide quickly, including cancer cells. These medicines can also affect normal cells that grow quickly. These include hair cells, cells that line your mouth and throat, and bone marrow cells where new blood cells are made. The side effects of chemotherapy are different for everyone. They often go away when the treatment ends.
Chemotherapy for AML is typically given in high doses. This can often lead to serious side effects. These often go away when the treatment ends. The side effects can be different for each person. The most common short-term side effects of chemotherapy for AML include:
Infections, from low levels of white blood cells
Easy bruising or bleeding, from low levels of blood platelets
Tiredness, from having low levels of red blood cells
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Skin and nail changes
Inflammation of the membrane covering the eye and lining the eyelid (conjunctivitis)
A possible long-term severe side effect of chemotherapy is organ damage. The risk depends on the medicines used. It can include damage to the kidneys, liver, testicles, ovaries, brain, heart, or lungs. Doctors and nurses watch treatment closely to try to reduce the risk of these side effects. Some medicines may raise your risk of having other types of cancer later on. These risks need to be weighed against the benefits these medicines provide in treating the AML.
It's important to know which medicines you're taking. Write your medicines down, ask your healthcare team how they work, and what side effects they might cause.
Talk with your healthcare providers about what signs to look for, and when to call them. Make sure you know what number to call with questions, even on evenings and weekends.
It may be helpful to keep a diary of your side effects. Write down physical, thinking, and emotional changes. A written list will make it easier for you to remember your questions when you go to your appointments. It will also make it easier for you to work with your healthcare team to make a plan to manage your side effects.