Laser surgery is a type of surgery that uses special light beams instead of instruments for surgical procedures.
The functioning of a laser goes back to Albert Einstein's theory of stimulated emission of radiation and includes other theories that help explain local tissue damage. As the light beam hits the skin, the skin may either reflect the light away, scatter the light, absorb the light, or let the light pass right through the different layers of the skin. Each layer of the skin uses the light differently.
Certain parts of the skin, called chromophones, absorb the light. When these chromophones absorb the light, physical, mechanical, chemical, or temperature changes may occur in the tissue.
There are many different types of lasers, including the carbon dioxide laser, the YAG (neodymium, or yttrium aluminum garnet) laser, and the argon laser. Each one works in a different manner and may be used for different treatment options. Laser light can be delivered either continuously or intermittently. The wavelength of the laser determines the target within the skin and the effect it may have.
There are many indications for the use of lasers in surgery. The following are some of the more common indications:
To shrink or destroy tumors
To help prevent blood loss by sealing small blood vessels
Refractive eye surgery
To treat some skin conditions, including to remove warts, moles, tattoos, birthmarks, acne, scars, wrinkles, and unwanted hair.