Along with a complete medical history and physical exam, other tests to diagnose bone disorders include:
Lab tests on blood, urine, and other body fluids
X-ray. An X-ray can show injuries, such as fractures, infections, arthritis, and other changes.
CT scan. This is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan. This scan uses radioactive glucose (sugar) to find active cancer. Cancer cells absorb a lot of radioactive sugar because of their high metabolic rate. This test can scan the entire body.
MRI. An MRI scan provides detailed images of soft tissue, the bone marrow cavity, and bone tumors.
Bone densitometry. Bone densitometry is often used to find osteoporosis. The test measures bone mass in the spine, hips, and arms. These are the areas most likely to fracture when bone mass is low.
Radionuclide bone scan. The bone scan is used to pinpoint the location of bone tumors. It's also used to find any spread to other bones. It's also used to diagnose stress fractures or tiny cracks in the bones
Biopsy. Tissue samples are removed and examined under a microscope. It's done to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. Two types of biopsy, including:
Needle biopsy. A needle is inserted into the bone to get a tissue sample.
Open biopsy. A surgical procedure in which an incision is made through the skin to allow a sample of tissue to be cut or scraped away.