Electrocardiography (ECG, sometimes called EKG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as it beats and blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.
Some things that may cause changes in the ECG pattern include:
An enlarged heart. Conditions such as heart defects present at birth (congenital), problems with heart valves, blood vessels, high blood pressure, or heart failure may cause an enlarged heart.
Ischemia. This means the heart muscle does not get oxygen because of fatty buildup in the arteries or from other blood vessel blockages. This prevents adequate blood flow.
Conduction disorders. This means a problem with the heart's electrical system. The heart may beat too fast, too slow, or at an uneven rate. Sometimes different parts of the heart may beat differently.
Abnormal electrolytes. This means having too much or too little of some minerals (electrolytes) in the blood. The minerals include sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium.
Pericarditis. This is an inflammation or infection of the sac that surrounds the heart. Sometimes this sac can fill up with fluid. This keeps the heart from beating normally.
Chest injury. This could be from a car accident or other trauma or impact to the heart. It prevents the heart from beating normally
An ECG may also be done for other reasons. For example, the healthcare provider might want to look for problems during a checkup or physical exam, or before surgery or another procedure.
There are no risks linked to ECG. Some children may have a reaction to the adhesive used to attach the ECG leads.
Your child does not need to do anything special for an ECG. The technician will explain how the test is done.
An ECG can be done almost anywhere. The equipment is very compact and portable. The equipment used includes the ECG machine, skin electrodes, and lead wires. The wires attach the electrodes to the ECG machine.
An ECG takes about 5 to 10 minutes, including attaching and detaching electrodes.
An ECG typically includes the following steps:
Your child will lie flat on a table or bed. He or she will need to lie still and not talk during the procedure. Parents can usually be present in the room.
The ECG technician will attach small plastic patches (electrodes) to your child's chest. One electrode will be attached to each arm and leg.
The lead wires will be attached to the electrodes.
The ECG machine is started. It will take only a few minutes for the test to be completed. The machine will generate an electrical read-out of your child's heartbeat. .
Once the test is done, the technician will disconnect the leads and remove the electrodes.
Your child's healthcare provider will look at the results. Depending on the results, your child's provider may order more tests or refer you to a pediatric cardiologist. This is a doctor with special training to treat heart problems in children.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure for your child make sure you know:
The name of the test or procedure
The reason your child is having the test or procedure
What results to expect and what they mean
The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
When and where your child is to have the test or procedure
Who will do the procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
What would happen if your child did not have the test or procedure
Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
When and how will you get the results
Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or your child has problems
How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure